# Physics Courses

### Courses in Astronomy (AST)

#### Lower Division Courses

**10G. Introduction to Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe (3)****
** Lecture - 3 hours. Non-mathematical introduction to astrophysics of the Universe beyond our solar system using concepts of modern physics. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 2, 10, any quarter of Physics 9 or 9H, or any upper-division physics course (other than 137 or 160). GE credit: SciEng. - I-III. (I-III.)

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**10L. Observational Astronomy Laboratory (1)****
** Laboratory - 2.5 hours. Prerequisite: course 10G or 10S (may be taken concurrently). Introduction to observations of the night sky using small telescopes in nighttime laboratory. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 2 or 10. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

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**10S. Introduction to the Solar System (3)****
** Lecture - 3 hours. Non-mathematical introduction to astrophysics of the solar system using concepts of modern physics. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 2, 10, any quarter of Physics 9 or 9H, or any upper-division physics course (other than 137 or 160). GE credit: SciEng. - II-III. (II-III.)

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**25. Introduction to Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (4)****
(Formerly Astronomy 2)
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory/discussion - 2 hours. Prerequisite: good facility in high school physics and mathematics (algebra and trigonometry). Description and interpretation of astronomical phenomena using the laws of modern physics. Modern astronomical instrumentation. Gravitation, relativity, electromagnetic radiation, atomic and nuclear processes in relation to the structure and evolution of stars, the solar system, galaxies, and the Universe. Not open to students who have received credit for course 10G, 10L, or 2. - I-III. (I-III.) Fassnacht and Lubin

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### Courses in Physics (PHY)

Physics 10 is primarily a concept-oriented one-quarter lecture/discussion course requiring relatively little mathematical background.

Physics 1 is a two-quarter sequence requiring some mathematics (trigonometry). Either 1A alone or both quarters may be taken. The sequence is not intended to satisfy entrance requirements of a year of physics for professional schools, but will satisfy requirements of 3 or 6 units of physics.

Physics 7 is a one-year (three-quarter) introductory physics course with laboratory intended for students majoring in the biological sciences. It has a calculus prerequisite. If you don’t need a full year of introductory physics, you should take one or two quarters of Physics 1 instead. Read the following information carefully if you are using Physics 7 to complete an introductory course you have already begun.

The sequence of material in Physics 7 is different from that in most traditionally taught introductory physics courses. Physics 7B is most like the first quarter or semester of traditionally taught courses which treat classical mechanics. Physics 7C is most like the last quarter or semester which, in traditionally taught courses, treats optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics. The content and sequence of Physics 7A is unlike that of most other traditionally taught courses.

If you have completed one introductory quarter or semester of a traditionally taught physics course and want to continue with Physics 7, you should first take (and will receive full credit for) Physics 7A.Then, either skip 7B, but self-study the last three weeks of material, or take 7B and receive reduced credit. Next, take 7C for full credit.

If you have taken two quarters of a year-long introductory physics course and have not had extensive work in optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics, you should take Physics 7C. In no case should you take Physics 7B without first taking Physics 7A. All other situations should be discussed directly with a Physics 7 instructor.

Students not intending to take the entire sequence should take Physics 1.

Physics 9 is a four-quarter sequence using calculus throughout and including laboratory work as an integral part. The course is primarily for students in the physical sciences and engineering.

Physics 9H is a five-quarter honors physics sequence, which may be taken instead of Physics 9. It is intended primarily for first-year students with a strong interest in physics and with advanced placement in mathematics. In course requirements and prerequisites, Physics 9HA-9HE can be substituted for Physics 9A-9D. You may not switch between the 9H and 9 series beyond 9HA or 9A.

#### Lower Division Courses

**1A. Principles of Physics (3)****
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: trigonometry or consent of instructor. Mechanics. Introduction to general principles and analytical methods used in physics with emphasis on applications in applied agricultural and biological sciences and in physical education. Not open to students who have received credit for course 7B, or 9A. - I. (I.)

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**1B. Principles of Physics (3)****
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 1A or 9A. Continuation of course 1A. Heat, optics, electricity, modern physics. Not open for credit to students who have received credit for course 7A, 7B, 7C, 9B, 9C, or 9D. - II. (II.)

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**7A. General Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 1.5 hours; discussion/laboratory - 5 hours. Prerequisite: Mathematics 16B, 17B, or 21B (may be taken concurrently). Introduction to general principles and analytical methods used in physics for students majoring in a biological science. Only two units of credit allowed to students who have completed course 9B, or 1B. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

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**7B. General Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 1.5 hours; discussion/laboratory - 5 hours. Prerequisite: course 7A. Continuation of course 7A. Only two units of credit allowed to students who have completed course 9A, or 1A. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

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**7C. General Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 1.5 hours; discussion/laboratory - 5 hours. Prerequisite: course 7B. Continuation of course 7B. Only two units of credit allowed to students who have completed course 9C. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

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**9A. Classical Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory - 2.5 hours; discussion - 1 hour. Prerequisite: Mathematics 21B. Introduction to general principles and analytical methods used in physics for physical science and engineering majors. Classical mechanics. Only 2 units of credit to students who have completed course 1A or 7B. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9HA. - III. (III.)

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**9B. Classical Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory - 2.5 hours; discussion - 1 hour. Prerequisite: course 9A

**[or 9HA]**, Mathematics 21C, 21D (may be taken concurrently). Continuation of course 9A. Fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, wave phenomena, optics. Only 2 units of credit to students who have completed course 7A. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9HB, 9HC, or Engineering 105. - I. (I.)

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**9C. Classical Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory - 2.5 hours; discussion - 1 hour. Prerequisite; course 9B

**[or 9HC]**, Mathematics 21D, 22A (may be taken concurrently). Electricity and magnetism including circuits and Maxwell’s equations. Only 3 units of credit to students who have completed course 7C. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9HD. - II. (II.)

**9D. Modern Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion - 1.5 hours. Prerequisite: course 9C

**[or 9HD]**and Mathematics 22A; Mathematics 22B recommended (may be taken concurrently). Introduction to physics concepts developed since 1900. Special relativity, quantum mechanics, atoms, molecules, condensed matter, nuclear and particle physics. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9HB, 9HC, or 9HE. - III. (III.)

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**9HA. Honors Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion/laboratory - 4 hours. Prerequisite: Mathematics 21B (may be taken concurrently) or consent of instructor. Classical mechanics. Same material as course 9A in greater depth. For students in physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering. Only 2 units of credit to students who have completed course 7B. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9A. - I. (I.)

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**9HB. Honors Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion/laboratory - 4 hours. Prerequisite: Physics 9HA or 9A, Mathematics 21C (may be taken concurrently). Special relativity, thermal physics. Continuation of course 9HA. Only 2 units of credit to students who have completed course 7A. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9B or 9D. - II. (II.)

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**9HC. Honors Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion/laboratory - 4 hours. Prerequisite: course 9HB and Mathematics 21D (may be taken concurrently). Waves, sound, optics, quantum physics. Continuation of Physics 9HB. Only 2 units of credit to students who have completed course 7C. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9B or 9D. - III. (III.)

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**9HD. Honors Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion/laboratory - 4 hours. Prerequisite: course 9HC and Mathematics 21D. Electricity and magnetism. Continuation of Physics 9HC. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9C. - I. (I.) Recent Syllabi and More Complete Descriptions

**9HE. Honors Physics (5)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion/laboratory - 4 hours. Prerequisite: course 9HD and Mathematics 22B (may be taken concurrently). Application of quantum mechanics. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 9D. - II. (II.)

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**10. Topics in Physics for Nonscientists (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; discussion - 1 hour. Prerequisite: high school algebra. Emphasis varies: survey of basic principles or a deeper exploration of some particular branch. Past topics included black holes, space time, and relativity; physics of music; history and philosophy; energy and the environment; and natural phenomena. Check with the department office for the current emphasis. No units of credit allowed if taken after any other physics course. GE credit: SciEng, Wrt. - I-II. (I-II.)

Recent Syllabus-Wittman

Recent Syllabus-Bradac

**12. Visualization in Science (3)**

Lecture—3 hours. Class size limited to 20-50 students. Production, interpretation, and use of images in physics, astronomy, biology, and chemistry as scientificevidence and for communication of researchresults. GE3 Visual Literacy.—II. (II.)

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**30. Fractals, Chaos and Complexity (3)**

Lecture - 2 hours; discussion - 1 hour. Prerequisite: Mathematics 16A or 21A. Modern ideas about the unifying ideas of fractal geometry, chaos and complexity. Basic theory and applications, with examples from physics, earth sciences, mathematics, population dynamics, ecology, history, economics, biology, computer science, art and architecture. (Same course as Geology 30.) - I. (I.) Not offered every year.

**49. Supplementary Work in Lower Division Physics (1-3)****
** Students with partial credit in lower division physics courses may, with consent of instructor, complete the credit under this heading. May be repeated for credit. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**90X. Lower Division Seminar (2)****
** Seminar - 2 hours. Prerequisite: lower division standing and consent of instructor. Examination of a special topic in Physics through shared readings, discussions, written assignments, or special activities such as laboratory work. May be repeated for credit. Limited enrollment.

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**98. Directed Group Study (1-5)****
** Prerequisite: consent of instructor; primarily for lower division students. (P/NP grading only.)

**99. Special Study for Undergraduates (1-5)****
** Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (P/NP grading only.)

#### Upper Division Courses

**102. Computational Laboratory in Physics (1)****
** Laboratory - 3 hours. Prerequisite: Mathematics 21D, 22A, 22B, Computer Science Engineering 30, course 9D or 9HD, course 104A concurrently. Introduction to computational physics and to the computational resources in the physics department. Preparation for brief programming assignments required in other upper division physics classes. Not open for credit to students who have completed course 104B or 105AL. - I. (I.) Fong

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**104A. Introductory Methods of Mathematical Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: courses 9B, 9C, 9D

**[or 9HB, 9HC, 9HD]**and Mathematics 21D, 22A, and 22B with grade C- or better or consent of instructor. Introduction to the mathematics used in upper-division physics courses, including applications of vector spaces, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations. - I. (I.)

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**104B. Computational Methods of Mathematical Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 104A with grade C- or better and course 105AL or consent of instructor. Introduction to the use of computational techniques to solve the mathematical problems that arise in advanced physics courses, complementing the analytical approaches emphasized in course 104A. - II. (II.)

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**104C. Intermediate Methods of Mathematical Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 104A with grade C- or better or consent of instructor. Applications of complex analysis, conditional probability, integral transformations and other advanced topics. Not offered every year.

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**105A-105B. Analytical Mechanics (4-4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: courses 9B, 9C, 9D

**[or 9HB, 9HC, 9HD]**and Mathematics 21D, 22A, and 22B passed with grade C– or better; or consent of department; course 104A and 105A passed with a grade C– or better or consent of department required for 105B. Principles and applications of Newtonian mechanics; introduction to Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s equations. - I-II. (I-II.)

Recent Syllabus 105A, Recent Syllabus 105B

**105C. Continuum Mechanics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: courses 104B and 105A passed with a grade of C– or better, or consent of department. The continuum hypothesis and limitations. Tensor methods develop stress-strain relations for linear isotropic solids/fluids and field equations to study wave propagation in solids/fluids, heat flow, potential flow and ocean waves. - III. (III.)

**108. Optics (3)****
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 9

**[or 9H]**or 7 sequence and Mathematics 21 sequence or consent of instructor. The phenomena of diffraction, interference, and polarization of light, with applications to current problems in astrophysics, material science, and atmospheric science. Study of modern optical instrumentation. Open to non-majors. - III. (III.) Recent Syllabi and More Complete Descriptions

**108L. Optics Laboratory (1)****
** Laboratory - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 108 concurrently. The laboratory will consist of one major project pursued throughout the quarter, based on modern applications of optical techniques. - III. (III.)

**110A-110B-110C. Electricity and Magnetism (4-4-4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: courses 9B, 9C, 9D

**[or 9HB, 9HC, 9HD]**and Mathematics 21D, 22A, and 22B passed with grade C– or better, or consent of department; prerequisite for 110B is courses 110A and 104A passed with a grade of C– or better or consent of department; prerequisite for course 110C is courses 110B and 104B passed with a grade of C– or better, or consent of department. Theory of electrostatics, electromagnetism, Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves. - II-III-I. (II-III-I.)

Recent Syllabus 110A, Recent Syllabus 110B, Recent Syllabus 110C

**112. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 115A or the equivalent. Introduction to classical and quantum statistical mechanics and their connections with thermodynamics. The theory is developed for the ideal gas model and simple magnetic models and then extended to studies of solids, quantum fluids, and chemical equilibria. - I. (I.)

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**115A. Foundation of Quantum Mechanics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: courses 104A and 105A with grade C- of better, or consent of instructor. Introduction to the methods of quantum mechanics with applications to atomic, molecular, solid state, nuclear and elementary particle physics. - III. (III.)

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**115B. Applications of Quantum Mechanics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 115A passed with a grade of C– of better, or consent of department. Angular momentum and spin; hydrogen atom and atomic spectra; perturbation theory; scattering theory. - I. (I.)

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**116A. Electronic Instrumentation (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 9C

**[or 9HD]**, Mathematics 22B. An experimental and theoretical study of important electronic circuits commonly used in physics. - I. (I.)

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**116B. Electronic Instrumentation (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 9D

**[or 9HD]**, 116A. Continuation of course 116A. Introduction to the use of digital electronics and microcomputers in experimental physics. - II. (II.)

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**116C. Introduction to Computer-Based Experiments in Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; laboratory - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 9D

**or 9HD**, 116B, Mathematics 22B or consent of instructor. Introduction to techniques for making physical measurements using computer-based instrumentation. - III. (III.) Pellett

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**122A. Advanced Physics Laboratory in Condensed Matter Physics (4) (Formerly Physics 122)
** Laboratory - 8 hours. Prerequisite: course 104A, 105A, 110B, and 112 (may be taken concurrently) or consent of the department, course 115A with grade of C- or better or consent of department. Experimental techniques and measurements in solid-state physics. Student performs three to six experiments depending on difficulty. Individual work is stressed. Thorough write-ups of the experiments are required. - II. (II.)

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**122B. Advanced Physics Laboratory in Particle Physics (4) (Formerly Physics 122)
** Laboratory - 8 hours. Prerequisite: course 104A, 105A, 110B, and 112 (may be taken concurrently) or consent of the department, course 115A with grade of C- or better or consent of department. Experimental techniques and measurements in nuclear and particle physics. Student performs three to six experiments depending on difficulty. Individual work is stressed. Thorough write-ups of the experiments are required. - II. (II.)

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**123. Signals and Noise in Physics (4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD

**[or 9HA-9HD]**and 104A, or consent of instructor. Techniques of measurement and analysis designed to avoid systematic error and maximize signal/noise ratio. Illustrative examples of optimal filters ranging from condensed matter to cosmology. - II. (II.)

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**129A. Introduction to Nuclear Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 115A passed with a grade of C- or better or consent of instructor. Survey of basic nuclear properties and concepts requiring introductory knowledge of quantum mechanics: nuclear models and forces, radioactive decay and detecting nuclear radiation and nuclear reaction products, alpha, beta and gamma decay. - III. (III.)

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**130A-130B. Elementary Particle Physics (4-4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 115A passed with a grade of C- or better or consent of instructor. Properties and classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Experimental techniques. Conservation laws and symmetries. Strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Introduction to Feynman calculus. - II-III. (II-III.)

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**140A-140B. Introduction to Solid State Physics (4-4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 115A or the equivalent passed with a grade of C- or better or consent of instructor. Survey of fundamental ideas in the physics of solids, with selected device applications. Crystal structure, x-ray and neutron diffraction, phonons, simple metals, energy bands and Fermi surfaces, semiconductors, optical properties, magnetism, superconductivity. - II-III. (II-III.)

Recent Syllabus 140A, Recent Syllabus 140B

**150. Special Topics in Physics (4)****
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD or 9HA, HB, HC, HD, HE or consent of instructor. Topics vary, covering areas of contemporary research in physics. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.) Offered irregularly/on demand.

**151. Stellar Structure and Evolution (4)**

Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD **[or 9HA-9HE]** or consent of instructor. The chemical composition, structure, energy sources and evolutionary history of stars, with equal emphasis on both the observational data and theoretical models, including black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs and the formation of substellar masses. - I. (I.) Not offered every year.

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**152. Galactic Structure and the Interstellar Medium (4)**

Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD **[or 9HA-9HE]** and Physics 105A concurrently or consent of instructor. The structure, contents, and formation of our Milky Way galaxy, viz. its shape and size, the nature of the interstellar medium, stellar populations, rotation curves, mass determination and evidence of dark matter. - I. (I.) Not offered every year.

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**153. Extragalactic Astrophysics (4)**

Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD **[or 9HA-9HE]** and Physics 104A and 105A or consent of the instructor. **Not open to students who have taken Physics 127**. Structure and evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, including distance and mass determination, galaxy types and environments, active galactic nuclei and quasars, gravitational lensing and dark matter, global cosmological properties. - II. (II.) Not offered every year.

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**154. Astrophysical Applications of Physics (4)**

Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 105AB, 110A; 110B, and 115A concurrently; 112 or consent of instructor. **Not open to students who have taken this course previously as Physics 198**. Applications of classical and quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and electricity and magnetism to astrophysical settings such as the Big Bang, degenerate white dwarf and neutron stars, and solar neutrinos. - III. (III.) Not offered every year.

**155. General Relativity (4)**

Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 104A and 105A; 105B and 110A or consent of instructor. Definition of the mathematical frame work for the description of the gravitational field, introduction of the dynamical equations of Einstein governing its evolution and review of the key solutions, including black holes and expanding universes. - II. (II.) Not offered every year.

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**156. Introduction to Cosmology**

Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD **[or 9HA-9HE]** and Physics 105A or consent of instructor. **Not open to students who have taken Physics 126**. Contemporary knowledge regarding the origin of the universe, including the Big Bang and nucleosynthesis, microwave background radiation, formation of cosmic structure, cosmic inflation, cosmic acceleration and dark energy. - II. (II.) Not offered every year.

**157. Astronomy Instrumentation and Data Analysis Laboratory**

Lecture - 2 hours; laboratory - 6 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite(s): Physics 9ABCD **[or 9HA-9HE]**. Experimental techniques, data acquisition and analysis involving stellar, nebular and galaxy digital imaging, photometry and spectroscopy. Analyzing time resolved changes in the solar atmosphere in the light of hydrogen alpha. - III. (III.) Not offered every year.

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**160. Environmental Physics and Society (3)****
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 9D

**[or 9HD]**or 7C; or course 10 or 1B and Mathematics 16B or the equivalent. Impact of humankind on the environment will be discussed from the point of view of the physical sciences. Calculations based on physical principles will be made, and the resulting policy implications will be considered. (Same course as Engineering 160.) GE credit: SciEng or SocSci. - III. (III.)

**190. Careers in Physics (1)**

Seminar - 2 hours. Overview of important research areas in physics, discussions of research opportunities and internships, strategies for graduate school and industrial careers, the fellowship and assistantship selection process, preparation of resumes, personal statements, and letters of recommendation. - I. (I.)

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**194HA-194HB. Special Study for Honors Students (4-4)****
** Independent study - 12 hours. Prerequisite: consent of instructor required. Open only to Physics and Applied Physics majors who satisfy the College of Letters and Science requirements for entrance into the Honors Program. Independent research project at a level significantly beyond that defined by the normal physics curriculum. (Deferred grading only, pending completion of sequence).

**195. Senior Thesis (5)****
** Independent study - 15 hours. Prerequisite: consent of instructor required. Open only to Physics and Applied Physics majors with senior standing. Preparation of a senior thesis on a topic selected by the student with approval of the department. May be repeated for a total of 15 units. - I-II- III. (I-II-III.)

**197T. Tutoring in Physics and Astronomy (1-5)****
** Tutoring of students in lower division courses. Leading of small voluntary discussion groups affiliated with one of the department’s regular courses. Weekly meeting with instructor. (P/NP grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**198. Directed Group Study (1-5)****
** Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (P/NP grading only.)

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**199. Special Study for Advanced Undergraduates (1-5)****
** (P/NP grading only.)

#### Graduate Courses

**200A. Theory of Mechanics and Electromagnetics (4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; independent study - 1 hour. Prerequisite: courses 104B, 105B, and 110C or the equivalent; course 204A concurrently. Theoretical approaches in classical mechanics including the use of generalized coordinates and virtual work; variational calculus; Lagrange equations; symmetries, conservation laws, and Noether theorem; Lagrangian density; Hamilton formalism; canonical transformations; Poisson brackets; and Hamilton-Jacobi equations. - I. (I.)

**200B-200C. Theory of Mechanics and Electromagnetics (4-4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; independent study - 1 hour. Prerequisite: course 200A, and course 204B concurrently. Theoretical approaches in electromagnetics including static electromagnetic fields; Maxwell’s equations; plane waves in various media; magnetohydrodynamics; diffraction theory; radiating systems; and special relativity. - II-III. (II-III.)

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**204A-204B. Methods of Mathematical Physics (4-4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; independent study - 1 hour. Prerequisite: courses 104A and 104B or the equivalent. Linear vector spaces, operators and their spectral analysis, complete sets of functions, complex variables, functional analysis, Green's functions, calculus of variations, introduction to numerical analysis. - I-II. (I-II.)

Recent Syllabus 204A, Recent Syllabus 204B

**210. Computational Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: knowledge of Fortran or C. Analytic techniques to solve differential equations and eignevalue problems. Physics content of course will be self-contained, and adjusted according to background of students. - II. (II.)

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**215A-215B-215C. Quantum Mechanics (4-4-4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; independent study - 1 hour. Prerequisite: course 115B or the equivalent. Formal development and interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics; its application to atomic, nuclear, molecular, and solid-state problems; brief introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics and the Dirac equation. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

Recent Syllabus 215C

**219A. Statistical Mechanics (4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 215B or the equivalent. Foundations of thermodynamics and classical and quantum statistical mechanics with simple applications to properties of solids, real gases, nuclear matter, etc. and a brief introduction to phase transitions. - III. (III.)

**219B. Statistical Mechanics (4)
** Lecture - 3 hours; extensive problem solving. Prerequisite: course 219A. Further applications of thermodynamics and classical and quantum statistical mechanics. The modern theory of fluctuations about the equilibrium state, phase transitions and critical phenomena. - I. (I.)

**223A. Group Theoretical Methods of Physics—Condensed Matter (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 215A, 215B (215C is corequisite) or consent of instructor. Theory of groups and their representations with applications in condensed matter. Not offered every year. - I. (I.)

**223B. Group Theoretical Methods of Physics—Elementary Particles (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 215A, 215B (215C is corequisite) or consent of instructor. Theory of groups and their representations with applications in elementary particle physics. Not offered every year. - I-II-III. (I-II-III).

**224A. Nuclear Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 215B. Comprehensive study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction including the deuteron, nucleon-nucleon scattering, polarization, determination of real parameters of S-matrix, and related topics. Not offered every year.

**224B. Nuclear Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 224A. Study of nuclear models, including shell model, collective model, unified model. Energy level spectra, static momenta, and electromagnetic transition rates. Not offered every year.

**224C. Nuclear Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 224B. Study of nuclear scattering and reactions including the optical model and direct interactions. Beta decay and an introduction to weak interactions. Not offered every year.

**229A. Advanced Nuclear Theory (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 224C. Advanced topics in nuclear theory; theory of quantum-mechanical scattering processes. Exact formal theory and models for two-body scattering. Not offered every year.

**229B. Advanced Nuclear Theory (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 229A. Advanced topics in nuclear theory; theory of quantum-mechanical scattering processes. Exact formal theory and models for three-body scattering. Not offered every year.

**230A. Quantum Theory of Fields (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 215C. Relativistic quantum mechanics of particles; techniques and applications of second quantization; Feynman diagrams; renormalization. - I. (I.)

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**230B. Quantum Theory of Fields (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 230A. Continuation of 230A, with selected advanced topics, such as S-matrix theory, dispersion relations, axiomatic formulations. - II. (II.)

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**230C. Quantum Theory of Fields (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 230B. Continuation of 230B. Renormalization theory and applications, including dimensional regularization, Ward identities, renormalization group equations, coupling constant unification, and precision electroweak calculations. - II. (II.)

**240A-240B. Condensed Matter Physics (3-3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 215A-215B-215C; courses 140A-140B recommended. Introduction to the phenomena and theory of the solid state. Periodic structures, lattice structures, electron states, static properties, electron-electron interaction, electron dynamics, transport properties, optical properties, the Fermi surface, magnetism, superconductivity. - I-III. (I-III.)

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**240C. Condensed Matter Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 240A-240B or the equivalent. Review of second quantization. Interacting electron gas, electron-phonon interaction and effects, including instabilities of electronic systems. Topics in the theory of superconductivity and magnetism. - II-III. (II-III.)

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**241. Advanced Topics in Magnetism (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 240A-240B, 240C-240D, or consent of instructor. Topics chosen from areas of current research interest. Not offered every year.

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**242. Advanced Topics in Superconductivity (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 240A-240B, 240C-240D, or consent of instructor. Topics chosen from areas of current research interest. Not offered every year.

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**243A-243B-243C. Surface Physics of Materials (3-3-3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 140A-140B, 115A-115B or the equivalents; courses 215A, 240A, or the equivalents recommended. Experimental and theoretical fundamentals of surface and interface physics and chemistry, including electronic and magnetic structure, thermodynamics, adsorption kinetics, epitaxial growth, and a discussion of various spectroscopic and structural probes based on photons, electrons, ions, and scanning probes. Not offered every year. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**245A. High-Energy Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 230A. Phenomenology and systematics of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions of hadrons and leptons; determination of quantum numbers; quarks and quarkonia; deep inelastic scattering; the quark parton model; experiments at hadron colliders and electron-positron colliders. - II. (II.)

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**245B. High-Energy Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 245A. Electroweak interactions; phenomenology of the Standard Model of SU(2)LxU(1); weak interaction experiments; properties of and experiments with W and Z vector bosons; Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model and the Higgs boson; introduction to supersymmetry and other speculations. - III. (III.)

**245C. Collider Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 245A. Strong interaction: quantum chromodynamics phenomenology; jets and other experimental tests; quark and gluon distribution functions; quark and gluon scattering; applications of the renormalization group. Not offered every year. - III. (III.)

**246A. Supersymmetry: Theory and Phenomenology (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 230A-230B, 245A-245B recommended, or consent of instructor. Construction of supersymmetric models of particle physics; superfields; supersymmetry breaking the minimal supersymmetric standard model; supergravity. Collider phenomenology of supersymmetry. Dark matter phenomenology. - III. (III.)

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**246B. Advanced Supersymmetry (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: course 246A. Advanced topics in supersymmetry. Topics inculde holomorphy, the Affleck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential, Seiberg duality for SUSY QCD, dynamical SUSY breaking,

Seiberg-Witten theory, superconformal field theories, supergravity, anomaly and gaugino mediation, and the AdS/CFT correspondence. Not offered every year. - I. (I.)

**250. Special Topics in Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Topic varies. May be repeated for credit. Not offered every quarter. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

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**252A. Techniques of Experimental Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Introduction to techniques and methods of designing and executing experiments. Problems and examples from condensed matter research will be utilized. Not offered every year.

**252B. Techniques of Experimental Physics (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Introduction to techniques and methods of designing and executing experiments. Problems and examples from nuclear and particle research will be utilized. - III. (III.)

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**252C. Statistics and Data Analysis for Particle Physics (3)**

Lecture – 3 hours. Introduction to statistical data analysis methods in particle physics. Theoretical lectures combined with practical computer laboratory work. -III. (III.)

**253. Signals and Noise in Physics (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. This course will cover techniques of measurement and analysis designed to avoid systematic error and optimize signal/noise ratio. Extraction of signals from noise, and examples of low-level detection spanning a range of subjects from laboratory physics to experimental cosmology will be discussed. Many examples will be from detection of radiation (UV to submillimeter) and imaging, including inverse problems and data analysis. - II. (II.)

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Recent Flyer

**256. Natural Computation and Self Organization (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Explores intrinsic unpredictability (deterministic chaos) and the emergence of structure in natural complex systems. Using statistical mechanics, information theory, and computation theory, the course develops a systematic framework for analyzing dynamical and stochastic processes in terms of their causal architecture. - II. (II.)

**260. Introduction to General Relativity (3)
** Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: courses 200A, 200B. An introduction to general relativity. Differential geometry and curved spacetime; the Einstein field equations; gravitational fields of stars and black holes; weak fields and gravitational radiation; experimental tests; Big Bang cosmology. Offered in alternate years. - I. (I.)

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**262. Early Universe Cosmology (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: 2nd year standing in Physics graduate program or consent of instructor. Introduction to early universe cosmology: the Big Bang, inflation, primordial nucleosynthesis, dark matter, dark energy, and other topics of current interest. - I. (I.)

**263. Cosmic Structure Formation (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: Course 260 (General Relativity). Growth of structure from small density inhomogeneities in the early universe to the diverse structures observable today. Use of observable properties (cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, peculiar velocities, number density, etc.) to constrain models of structure formation and fundamental physics. - III. (III.)

**265. High Energy Astrophysics and Radiative Processes (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Survey course covering galactic and extragalactic X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, radiative processes, and techniques of high-energy astrophysics. - I. (I.)

**266. Data Analysis for Astrophysics (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Survey course covering measurement and signal analysis techniques for astrophysics and cosmology throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. - II. (II.)

**267. Observational Extragalactic Astronomy & Cosmology (3)**

Lecture - 3 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Survey course covering current areas of research on extragalactic objects, their physical properties, origin, evolution, and distribution in space. - III. (III.)

**270. Current Topics in Physics Research (2)**

Lecture/Discussion - 2 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Reading and discussion to help physics graduate students develop and maintain familiarity with the current and past literature in their immediate field of research and related areas. May be repeated for credit when topics differ. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**280. Seminar in Ethics for Scientists (2)**

Seminar--2 hours. Studies of topical and historical issues in the ethics of science, possibly including issues such as proper authorship, peer review, fraud, plagiarism, responsible collaboration, and conflict of interest.

**285. Careers in Physics (1)**

Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics. Designed to give Physics graduate students an in-depth appreciation of career opportunities with a graduate degree in physics. Professional physicists, mainly from outside academia, will give seminars describing both research and career insights. - II. (II.)

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**290. Seminar in Physics (1)
** Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics of current research interest in physics. Topics will vary weekly and will cover a broad spectrum of the active fields of physics research at a level accessible to all physics graduate students. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**291. Seminar in Nuclear Physics (1)
** Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics of current research interest in nuclear physics. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**292A. Seminar in Elementary Particle Physics (1)
** Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics of current research interest in elementary particle physics. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**292B. Seminar in Joint Theory (1)**

Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics of current research interest in joint theory physics. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**293. Seminar in Condensed Matter Physics (1)
** Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics of current research interest in condensed matter physics. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

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**294. Seminar in Cosmology (1)
** Seminar - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics of current research interest in Cosmology. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**295. Introduction to Departmental Research (1)
** Seminar - 1 hour. Seminar to introduce first- and second-year physics graduate students to the fields of specialty and research of the Physics staff. (S/U grading only.) - II. (II.)

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**297. Research on the Teaching and Learning of Physics (3)
** Seminar - 3 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics or consent of instructor. Discussion and analysis of recent research in how students construct understanding of physics and other science concepts and the implications of this research for instruction. - III. (III.) Potter

**298. Group Study (1-5)
** Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (S/U grading only.)

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**299. Research (1-12)
** (S/U grading only.)

#### Professional Courses

**371. Teaching in an Active-Engagement Physics Discussion/Lab Setting (1)**

Lecture/Discussion- 1 hour. Prerequisite: Physics 9D or equivalent. Open to graduate students only. Analysis of recent research on science/physics teaching and learning and its implications for teaching labs, discussions, and discussion/labs with an emphasis on the differences between conventional and active-engagement instructional settings. The appropriate role of the instructor in specific instructional settings. - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**390. Methods of Teaching Physics (1)
** Lecture/discussion - 1 hour. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Physics; consent of instructor. Practical experience in methods and problems related to teaching physics laboratories at the university level, including discussion of teaching techniques, analysis of quizzes and laboratory reports and related topics. Required of all Physics Teaching Assistants. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)

**396. Teaching Assistant Training Practicum (1-4)
** Prerequisite: graduate standing. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.) - I-II-III. (I-II-III.)