Selected Publications

  Kai Liu



D. A. Gilbert, B. B. Maranville, A. L. Balk, B. J. Kirby, P. Fischer, D. T. Pierce, J. Unguris, J. A. Borchers, and Kai Liu,

"Realization of Ground State Artificial Skyrmion Lattices at Room Temperature",

Nature Communications, in press.



D. A. Gilbert, L. Ye, A. Varea, S. Agramunt-Puig, N. del Valle, C. Navau, J. F. Lopez-Barbera, K. S. Buchanan, A. Hoffmann, A. Sanchez, J. Sort, Kai Liu, and J. Nogues,

"A New Reversal Mode in Exchange Coupled Antiferromagnetic/Ferromagnetic Disks: Distorted Viscous Vortex",

Nanoscale, 7, 9878 - 9885 (2015); arXiv:1504.07121


(PDF, 5.8MB)


W. J. Li, D. W. Shi, P. K. Greene, K. Javed, Kai Liu, and X. F. Han,

"Enhanced exchange bias in IrMn/CoFe deposited on self-organized hexagonally patterned nanodots",

Applied Physics Letters, 106, 072409 (2015).


(PDF, 861KB)


R. K. Dumas, P. K. Greene, D. A. Gilbert, L. Ye, C. Zha, J. Akerman, and Kai Liu,

"Accessing Different Spin-Disordered States using First Order Reversal Curves",

Physical Review B, 90, 104410 (2014); arXiv:1409.0825.


(PDF, 1.3MB)


D. A. Gilbert, J. W. Liao, L. W. Wang, J. W. Lau, T. J. Klemmer, J. U. Thiele, C. H. Lai, and Kai Liu,

"Probing the A1 to L10 Transformation in FeCuPt Using the First Order Reversal Curve Method",

APL Materials, 2, 086106 (2014); arXiv:1408.2860.


(PDF, 1 MB)


P. K. Greene, J. Osten, Kilian Lenz, J. Fassbender, C. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, T. Endo, N. Iwata, and Kai Liu,

"Tuning Perpendicular Anisotropy Gradient in Co/Pd Multilayers by Ion Irradiation",

Applied Physics Letters, 105, 072401 (2014); arXiv:1408.1659.


(PDF, 1.5MB)


P. K. Greene, B. J. Kirby, J. W. Lau, J. A. Borchers, M. R. Fitzsimmons, and Kai Liu,

"Deposition Order Dependent Magnetization Reversal in Pressure Graded Co/Pd films",

Applied Physics Letters, 104, 152401 (2014); arXiv:1404.1350.


(PDF, 1.6MB)


D. A. Gilbert, G. T. Zimanyi, R. K. Dumas, M. Winklhofer, A. Gomez, N. Eibagi, J. L. Vicent, and Kai Liu,

"Quantitative Decoding of Interactions in Tunable Nanomagnet Arrays Using First Order Reversal Curves",

Scientific Reports, 4, 4204; DOI:10.1038/srep04204 (2014); arXiv:1401.7749


(PDF, 1.8MB)


J. E. Davies, D. A. Gilbert, M. Mohseni, R. K. Dumas, J. Akerman and Kai Liu,

"Reversal mode instability and magnetoresistance in perpendicular (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) pseudo-spin-valves",

Applied Physics Letters, 103, 022409 (2013); arXiv:1307.0853


(PDF, 1.1MB)


D. A. Gilbert, L.W. Wang, T. Klemmer, Jan-Ulrich Thiele, C. H. Lai, and Kai Liu,

"Tuning magnetic anisotropy in (001) oriented (Fe1-xCux)55Pt45 films",

Applied Physics Letters, 102, 132406 (2013); arXiv:1303.5208;

Featured in APL Research Highlights & Top Stories, one of 15 Most Accessed APL papers in 2013.


(PDF, 1.1MB)


R. K. Dumas, C. P. Li, I. V. Roshchin, I. K. Schuller, and Kai Liu,

"Deconvoluting Reversal Modes in Exchange Biased Nanodots",

Physical Review B, 86, 144410 (2012); arXiv:1210.1817


(PDF, 713KB)


R. M. Wong, D. A. Gilbert, Kai Liu, and A. Y. Louie,

"Rapid Size-Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, 64Cu-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles",

ACS Nano, 6, 3461-3467 (2012); arXiv:1210.1823


(PDF, 3.8MB)


X. M. Kou, X. Fan, R. K. Dumas, Q. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, H. Zhu, X. K. Zhang, Kai Liu, and J. Q. Xiao,

"Memory effect in magnetic nanowire arrays",

Advanced Materials, 23, 1393 (2011).


(PDF, 575 KB)


R. K. Dumas, D. A. Gilbert, N. Eibagi, and Kai Liu,

"Chirality control via double vortices in asymmetric Co dots",

Physical Review B (Rapid Communications), 83, 060415 (2011); arXiv:1008.4963


(PDF, 457 KB)


Randy K. Dumas, Thomas Gredig, Chang-Peng Li, Ivan K. Schuller and Kai Liu,

"Angular Dependence of Vortex Annihilation Fields in Asymmetric Co Dots",

Physical Review B, 80, 014416 (2009); arXiv: 0906.3877.


(PDF, 443 KB)


J. E. Davies, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, M. Winklhofer, R. D. Shull, and Kai Liu,

"Frustration Driven Stripe Domain Formation in Co/Pt Multilayer Films",

Applied Physics Letters, 95, 022505 (2009); arXiv: 0906.4744


(PDF, 546 KB)


R. Morales, Z-P. Li, J. Olamit, Kai Liu, J.M. Alameda, and Ivan K. Schuller,

"Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spin structure on exchange bias",

Physical Review Letters, 102, 097201 (2009).


(PDF, 345 KB)


M. Tofizur Rahman, Randy K. Dumas, Nasim Eibagi, Nazmun N. Shams, Yun-Chung Wu, Kai Liu, and Chih-Huang Lai,

"Controlling magnetization reversal in Co/Pt nanostructures with perpendicular anisotropy",

Applied Physics Letters, 94, 042507 (2009); arXiv: 0901.4562.


(PDF, 485 KB)


Jared Wong, Peter Greene, Randy K. Dumas, and Kai Liu,

"Probing Magnetic Configurations in Co/Cu Multilayered Nanowires",

Applied Physics Letters, 94, 032504 (2009); arXiv: 0901.2745.


(PDF, 322KB)


J. E. Davies, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, and Kai Liu,

"Temperature Dependent Magnetization Reversal in (Co/Pt)/Ru Multilayers",

Physical Review B, 77, 014421-1-7 (2008).


(PDF, 657KB)


R. K. Dumas, Kai Liu, C. P. Li, I. V. Roshchin, and I. K. Schuller
"Temperature Induced Single Domain - Vortex State Transition in sub-100nm Fe Nanodots",

Applied Physics Letters, 91, 202501-1-3 (2007).


(PDF, 276KB)


R. K. Dumas, C. P. Li, I. V. Roshchin, I. K. Schuller, and Kai Liu,

"Magnetic fingerprints of sub-100 nm Fe nanodots",
Physical Review B, 75, 134405-1-5 (2007).


(PDF, 445KB)


J. Olamit, Kai Liu, Z. P. Li, and I. K. Schuller,
"Irreversibility of magnetization rotation in exchange biased Fe/epitaxial-FeF2 thin films",
Applied Physics Letters, 90, 032510-1-3 (2007).

(PDF, 284KB)


R. Morales, Z. P. Li, O. Petracic, X. Batlle, I. K. Schuller, J. Olamit, and Kai Liu, 
"Magnetization depth-dependence in exchange-biased thin films",
Applied Physics Letters, 89, 072504-1-3 (2006).

(PDF, 339KB)


Z. P. Li, O. Petracic, R. Morales, J. Olamit, X. Batlle, Kai Liu, and I. K. Schuller,
"Origin of asymmetric reversal in exchange biased bilayers",
 Physical Review Letters, 96, 217205-1-4 (2006)
; cond-mat/0603060.

(PDF, 356KB)


E. Arenholz, Kai Liu, Z. P. Li, and I. K. Schuller,
"Magnetization reversal of uncompensated Fe moments in exchange biased Ni/FeF2 bilayers",
Applied Physics Letters, 88, 072503-1-3 (2006).

(PDF, 75KB)


J. Olamit, Z. P. Li, I. K. Schuller, and Kai Liu,
"Angular dependence of exchange anisotropy on cooling field in FM/fluoride thin films",
Physical Review B, 73, 024413-1-7 (2006); cond-mat/0512257.



M. C. Qian, C. Y. Fong, Kai Liu, W. E. Pickett, J. E. Pask, and L. H. Yang,
"Half-metallic digital ferromagnetic heterostructure composed of a
detla -doped layer of Mn in Si",
Physical Review Letters, 96, 027211-1-4 (2006); cond-mat/0508269.



J. E. Davies, J. Wu, C. Leighton, and Kai Liu,
"Magnetization Reversal and Nanoscopic Magnetic Phase Separation in La1-xSrxCoO3",
Physical Review B, 72, 134419-1-8 (2005); cond-mat/0509190.

(PDF, 511KB)


E. Arenholz and Kai Liu,
"Angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in exchange biased Fe/MnF2",
Applied Physics Letters, 87, 132501-1-3 (2005); cond-mat/0508445.

(PDF, 76KB)


J. Olamit, E. Arenholz, Z. P. Li, O. Petracic, I. V. Roshchin, R. Morales, X. Batlle, I. K. Schuller,and Kai Liu,
"Loop bifurcation and magnetization rotation in exchange biased Ni/FeF2",
Physical Review B, 72, 012408-1-4 (2005); cond-mat/0504689.

(PDF, 114KB)


J. E. Davies, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, J. S. Jiang, S. D. Bader, G. T. Zimanyi, and Kai Liu,
"Anisotropy-dependence of irreversible switching in Fe/SmCo and FeNi/FePt spring magnet films",
Applied Physics Letters, 86, 262503-1-3 (2005); cond-mat/0504492

(PDF, 130KB)


S. Cho, J. C. Idrobo, J. Olamit, Kai Liu, N. D. Browning, and S. M. Kauzlarich,
"Growth mechanisms and oxidation-resistance of Au-coated Fe nanoparticles",
Chemistry of Materials, 17, 3181-3186 (2005);


(PDF, 174KB)


M. S. Pierce, C. R. Buechler, L. B. Sorensen, J. J. Turner, S. D. Kevan, E. A. Jagla, J. M. Deutsch, T. Mai, O. Narayan, J. E. Davies, Kai Liu, J. Hunter Dunn, K. M. Chesnel, J. B. Kortright, O. Hellwig, and E. E. Fullerton,
"Disorder-induced microscopic magnetic memory",
Physical Review Letters, 94, 017202-1-4 (2005). 

(PDF, 314KB)


J. E. Davies, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, G. Denbeaux, J. B. Kortright and Kai Liu,
"Magnetization reversal of Co/Pt multilayers: microscopic origin of high field magnetic irreversibility",
Physical Review B, 70, 224434-1-8 (2004).

(PDF, 1MB)


J. I. Martin, J. Nogues, Kai Liu, J. L. Vicent, and I. K. Schuller, Topical review,
"Ordered magnetic nanostructures: fabrication and properties",
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 256, 449-501 (2003).

(PDF, 1.8MB)


Kai Liu, J. Nogues, C. Leighton, H. Masuda, K. Nishio, I. V. Roshchin and I. K. Schuller,
"Fabrication and thermal stability of arrays of Fe nanodots",
Applied Physics Letters, 81, 4434-4436 (2002); also in Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, 6 (24) (2002).

(PDF, 130KB)


H. G. Katzgraber, F. Pazmandi, C. R. Pike, Kai Liu, R. T. Scalettar, K. L. Verosub, and G. T. Zimanyi,
"Reversal-field memory in the hysteresis of spin-glasses",
Physical Review Letters, 89, 257202-1-4 (2002).

(PDF, 216KB)


Kai Liu, S. M. Baker, M. Tuominen, T. P. Russell, and I. K. Schuller
"Tailoring exchange bias with magnetic nanostructures",

Physical Review B 63, (Rapid Communications), 060403-1-4 (2001).

(PDF, 262KB)


V. Nikitenko, V. Gornakov, A. Shapiro, R. Shull, Kai Liu, S. M. Zhou and C. L. Chien,
"Asymmetry in elementary events of
magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayer",
Physical Review Letters, 84, 765-768 (2000).

(PDF, 794KB)


F. Y. Yang, Kai Liu, Kimin Hong, D. H. Reich, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien,
"Large magnetoresistance in electrodeposited single-crystal bismuth thin films",
Science 284, 1335-1337 (1999). 

(PDF, 87KB)


F. Y. Yang, Kai Liu, C. L. Chien, and P. C. Searson,
"Large magnetoresistance and finite-size effects in electrodeposited single-crystal Bi thin films",
Physical Review Letters 82, 3328-3331 (1999). 

(PDF, 578KB)


Kai Liu, C. L. Chien, and P. C. Searson,
"Finite size effect in Bi nanowires",
Physical Review B 58, (Rapid Communications)
R14681-R14684 (1998). 

(PDF, 91KB)


Kai Liu, C. L. Chien, P. C. Searson, and Kui Yu-Zhang,
"Structural and magneto-transport properties of electrodeposited
bismuth nanowires",
Applied Physics Letters, 73, 1436-1438 (1998).

(PDF, 131KB)


K. H. Ahn, X. W. Wu, K. Liu, and C. L. Chien,
"Magnetic properties and colossal magnetoresistance of La(Ca)MnO3 materials
doped with Fe",
Physical Review B 54, 15299-15302 (1996). 

(PDF, 105KB)


K. Liu, X. W. Wu, K. H. Ahn, T. Sulchek, C. L. Chien, and John Q. Xiao,
"Charge Ordering and Magnetoresistance in Nd1-x CaxMnO3 Due to Reduced Double Exchange",
Physical Review B 54, 3007-3010 (1996). 

(PDF, 821KB)


K. Liu, K. Nagodawithana, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien,
"Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of multilayered Co/Cu
Physical Review B 51, (Rapid Communications) 7381-7384 (1995).

(PDF, 1.2MB)

  Complete list of publications




C. L. Chien, P. C. Searson, and Kai Liu,
"Arrays of Semimetallic Bismuth Nanowires and Fabrication Techniques Thereof",
United States Patent No. 6,187,165, February 13, 2001.


F. Y. Yang, Kai Liu, C. L. Chien, and P. C. Searson,
"Bismuth Thin Films Structure and Methods of Construction",
United States Patent No. 6,358,392, March 19, 2002.


Kai Liu, P. Klavins, and L. Zhao,
"Synthesis of LiBC and hole-doped Li1-xBC"
United States Patent No. 7,144,562, December 5, 2006.



Last Updated 8/2014

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